台灣是屬美國例外占領 Taiwan’s Exceptional Occupation

台灣是屬美國例外占領
Taiwan’s Exceptional Occupation

1899年4月11日美國與西班牙戰後,簽訂巴黎條約( Treaty of Paris),其中,菲律賓原為被西班牙殖民地,美國與西班牙戰爭之後,西班牙將菲律賓群島及其他島嶼割讓給美國,菲律賓成為美國新的殖民地。

1901年3月15日,「菲律賓美國民政府」取代「菲律賓美國軍政府」,成為菲律賓治理當局。菲律賓住民在美國殖民初期未曾自行成立「菲律賓民政府」,美國治理下之菲律賓政治,是建構在由菲律賓人所選出之下議會(Philippine Assembly)及由美國總統所指派之上議會(Philippine Commission)。及至1916年,菲律賓上議會(Philippine Commission)才依Jones Law(菲律賓自治法案),被菲律賓民選之菲律賓參議院(Philippine Senate)所取代。

因此,美國政府從來不承認菲律賓住民自行宣告成立之政府,將其視為叛軍組織,雙方間存有敵意而發生戰爭。「台灣民政府」是美國在日本台灣被占領領土「應設立而未設立」之民事治理機關。本土台灣住民基於自救,以「林志昇控美政府」為手段,在自然法架構內,依戰爭法宣告成立「台灣民政府」,迫使美國不得不承認,這是戰爭史上之特例,並不適用於美國對其他外國領土之占領,其理由是:

「台灣民政府」是征服日本之美國總統杜魯門,與其後繼者在法理占領地台灣,依戰爭法必須為本土台灣人設立,以治理民事之「唯一合法政府(sole legal government)」。

另一方面,「中華民國民主進步黨」無論其成員背景為何?是效忠中華民國而參與中華民國體制運作之政治團體,應被視為「占領方中國人」而非「被占領方本土台灣人」,無庸置疑,基於「占領方中國人」並無立場參與「被占領方台灣民政府」,中華民國民進黨並無資格且絕對不會被美國承認為「台灣民政府」。

另一方面,基於台灣民政府之設立是涉及戰爭法,美國高等法院在「林志昇控美案」判決後,司法單位要求美國行政單位應該主動協助原告,於是,美國於2010年9月8日,在Washington D.C. Four Seasons Hotel之酒會中, 是遵照美國司法和在戰爭法架構內,正式承認台灣民政府,縱使在中華民國流亡體制選舉也無任何法源,可將無涉戰爭法之中華民國民進黨承認為台灣民政府。

作者:林 志昇(武林 志昇˙林 峯弘)
福爾摩沙法理建國會 執行長
2011/11/17初論 2014/06/27再論

參考資料:

1. CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOR THE PHILIPPINES; Military Authority to be Supplanted on May 15.
Special to The New York Times. March 17, 1901,
[ DISPLAYING ABSTRACT ]
WASHINGTON, March 16 -- Civil Government will be established in the Philippines on May 15. The continual victories of Gen. MacArthur and the creation of newly organized communities wherever the Taft Commission has gone have indicated to the Administration that the Islands are now sufficiently pacified to permit the experiment.

2. Establishment of the Philippine Civil Government

On March 2, 1901 the U.S. Congress passed the Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriation Act, providing legislative authority for the President to proceed with the establishment of a civil government in the Philippines. Up until this time, the President been administering the Philippines by virtue of his war powers. On July 1, 1901, civil government was inaugurated with William H. Taft as the Civil Governor. Later, on February 3, 1903, the U.S. Congress would change the title of Civil Governor to Governor-General.

3. Establishment of the Philippline Assembly

The Philippine Assembly was the lower house of the legislative body of the Philippines during the early part of American colonial period. It was created by the Philippine Organic Act, passed in 1902, which also established the Philippine Commission as the upper house of the Philippine Legislature, headed by the U.S. Governor General.

4. Establishment of the Philippine Commission

The Philippine Commission was a body appointed by the President of the United States to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President William McKinley in 1901. Beginning in 1907, it acted as the upper house of a bicameral Philippine Legislature, with the elected Philippine Assembly acting as lower house.

5. Establishment of the Philippine Senate

The Jones Law (Philippine Autonomy Act) of 1916 created an elected Philippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission.

6.

Republic of the Philippines
SUPREME COURT
Manila

G.R. No. L-5   September 17, 1945

The doctrine upon this subject is thus summed up by Halleck, in his work on International Law (Vol. 2, p. 444): "The right of one belligerent to occupy and govern the territory of the enemy while in its military possession, is one of the incidents of war, and flows directly from the right to conquer. We, therefore, do not look to the Constitution or political institutions of the conqueror, for authority to establish a government for the territory of the enemy in his possession, during its military occupation, nor for the rules by which the powers of such government are regulated and limited. Such authority and such rules are derived directly from the laws war, as established by the usage of the world, and confirmed by the writings of publicists and decisions of courts — in fine, from the law of nations. . . . The municipal laws of a conquered territory, or the laws which regulate private rights, continue in force during military occupation, excepts so far as they are suspended or changed by the acts of conqueror. . . . He, nevertheless, has all the powers of a de facto government, and can at his pleasure either change the existing laws or make new ones."

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