阿拉斯加 Alaska

第二十四屆福爾摩沙法理自治學院上課時,提到中國國家副主席近平曾造訪日本天皇,中國自恃已經改革開放成功,累積若干財富,妄想從日本天皇手中購買日本台灣,被拒後,又想積極邀請日本皇太子訪問中國,企圖不明,有人擔心中國意圖不明,特為文說明阿拉斯和日本台灣法理狀況。

俄國沙皇亞歷山大二世,依當年俄國駐美公使Eduard de Stoeckl和美國國務卿William H. Seward斡旋後,1867年3月30日所簽訂之條約,以美金720萬元代價,將阿拉斯加賣給美國政府。在條約生效前,阿拉斯加原來是俄國拓殖未完成的殖民地。

美國買下阿拉斯加後,直至1912年5月11日才將阿拉斯加「編入」美國。在此之前,阿拉斯加是美國殖民地性質之「未編入(未合併)」領土,由美國總統指派總督治理。阿拉斯加是於1959年1月3日成為美國第49州。

台灣如只是日本天皇所領有的「殖民地」,當然可被日本天皇讓與任何方。然而, 日本政府既已於1945年4月1日,將台灣「編入」為適用萬國公法之日本國土一部份,日本政府不得違反萬國公法移轉對台灣之主權義務。日本天皇即使遵照1945年9月2日所簽署日本投降書,同意在波茨坦公告第八條架構內,將台灣依開羅宣言歸還中國,也不會且不可能實現,遑論將台灣賣給中國。


作者:林 志昇(武林 志昇˙林峰弘)

台灣(民)政府 秘書長

2012/2/22、2014/8/24


參考資料:

 

1. Russian Colonization on Alaska

 

Some researchers believe that the first Russian settlement in Alaska was established in 17th century.

Sitka, renamed New Archangel from 1804 to 1867, on Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago in what is now Southeast Alaska, became the capital of Russian America and remained the capital after the colony was transferred to the United States. The Russians never fully colonized Alaska, and the colony was never very profitable.

William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State, negotiated the Alaska Purchase (also known as Seward's Folly) with the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million. Alaska was loosely governed by the military initially, and was administered as a district starting in 1884, with a governor appointed by the president of the United States, as well as a district court headquartered in Sitka.

2. Alaska Purchase Treaty

The Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of the Alaska territory by the United States from Russia in the year 1867 by a treaty ratified by the Senate.

The Russians therefore started to believe that in any future conflict with Britain, their hard-to-defend region might become a prime target, and would be easily captured. Therefore the Tsar Alexander II decided to sell the territory.

Following the Union victory in the Civil War, the Tsar then instructed the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl, to re-enter into negotiations with Seward in the beginning of March 1867. The negotiations concluded after an all-night session with the signing of the treaty at 4 a.m. on March 30, 1867, with the purchase price set at $7.2 million, or about 2 cents per acre.

3. Alaska Status

Alaska was purchased from Russia on March 30, 1867, for $7.2 million ($113 million in today's dollars) at approximately two cents per acre ($4.74/km²). The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized (or incorporated) territory on May 11, 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959.

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